How can the hazard of open excavations be eliminated?

How can the hazard of open excavations be eliminated give 3 examples?

Examples of reducing risk during excavation work

Isolation—for example use concrete barriers to separate pedestrians and powered mobile plant to reduce the risk of collision. Engineering controls—for example benching, battering or shoring the sides of the excavation to reduce the risk of the ground collapsing.

How can excavation hazards be prevented?

Provide protection by:

  1. Set spoils and equipment at least 2 feet back from the excavation.
  2. Use retaining devices, such as a trench box that will extend above the top of the trench to prevent equipment and spoils from falling back into the excavation.


How can we protect excavation?

Loose materials – may fall from spoil heaps into the excavation. Edge protection should include toeboards or other means, such as projecting trench sheets or box sides to protect against falling materials. Head protection should be worn.

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How do you stop an excavation from collapsing?

Keep the surface clean

  1. Move extra excavation materials at least 2 feet away from the trench.
  2. If there isn’t room, remove the materials from the site.
  3. Remove personnel from the edge of the trench who are not working on it.
  4. Keep all equipment away from the site to prevent cave-ins and blunt force trauma.

What are the three methods of excavation?

Types of excavation

  • 3.1 Cut and fill excavation.
  • 3.2 Trench excavation.
  • 3.3 Basement excavation.
  • 3.4 Road excavation.
  • 3.5 Bridge excavation.
  • 3.6 Dredging.
  • 3.7 Over excavation.


How dangerous is excavation work?

Trenching and excavating are a regular part of construction operations and are required for a wide range of construction projects. According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, or OSHA, trenching is a leading jobsite hazard, which causes an average of 54 fatalities each year.

What are the types of excavation hazard?

More excavation-related hazards

  • falls into trenches or excavations.
  • tripping over equipment, debris and spoil.
  • excavated material or other objects falling on workers.
  • exposure to underground services or overhead electrical cables.
  • unstable adjacent structures.
  • mishandled or poorly placed materials.


What is excavation safety?

Excavation safety Precautions:

Detection of underground facilities using metal or cable detector. Trial excavation shall be carried out to ensure protection of underground facility before mechanical excavation. Adapting soil protection method like stepping, sloping, shoring and close sheeting.

What are the major types of caught in and caught between hazards in construction?

“Caught in-between” hazards kill workers in a variety of ways. These include: cave-ins and other hazards of excavation work; body parts pulled into unguarded machinery; standing within the swing radius of cranes and other construction equipment; caught between equipment & fixed objects.

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How is excavation done?

Some of the different processes used in excavation include trenching, digging, dredging and site development. Each of these processes requires unique techniques, tools and machinery to get the job done right.

What are the types of excavation?

Types of Excavation

  • Earth excavation is removal of the layer of soil immediately under the topsoil and on top of rock. …
  • Muck excavation is removal of material that contains an excessive amount of water and undesirable soil. …
  • Unclassified excavation is removal of any combination of topsoil, earth, rock, and muck.

What is shielding excavation?

Shoring is the provision of a support system for trench faces used to prevent movement of soil, underground utilities, roadways, and foundations. Shoring or shielding is used when the location or depth of the cut makes sloping back to the maximum allowable slope impractical.

What is a way to stabilize a trench so it won’t collapse?

Both employ aluminum rails and hydraulic cylinders that apply pressure to the walls of a trench, creating an “arching” effect in the adjacent soil that prevents the walls from collapsing. Trench Shields: Trench shields are aluminum or steel structures designed to protect workers by withstanding the forces of a cave-in.

What are the three methods to protect workers from collapsing excavations?

OSHA recognizes three methods to protect workers from collapsing excavations. They are: Sloping, Shoring systems, Shielding.

What can cause excavations to collapse?

Wet weather and the vibrations from nearby construction equipment can also cause a collapse. In some cases, the problem is that heavy equipment and the weight of the dirt that has been dug out. Both can put too much pressure on the walls of the trench.

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