What are the two categories of excavation?

What are the two types of excavation?

Types of Excavation

  • Earth excavation is removal of the layer of soil immediately under the topsoil and on top of rock. …
  • Muck excavation is removal of material that contains an excessive amount of water and undesirable soil. …
  • Unclassified excavation is removal of any combination of topsoil, earth, rock, and muck.

What is classified excavation?


Common excavation shall be defined as the excavation of all materials that can be excavated, transported, and unloaded by the use of heavy ripping equipment and wheel tractor-scrapers with pusher tractors.

What are the three methods of excavation?

Types of excavation

  • 3.1 Cut and fill excavation.
  • 3.2 Trench excavation.
  • 3.3 Basement excavation.
  • 3.4 Road excavation.
  • 3.5 Bridge excavation.
  • 3.6 Dredging.
  • 3.7 Over excavation.


What is muck excavation?

Muck excavation is based on the type of material being excavated, which a combination of water and soil. Excavation can be used to remove muck to another area, or to spread it out so that soil can dry. …

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What are the steps of excavation?

The excavation process includes:

  1. setting corner benchmarks.
  2. surveying ground and top levels.
  3. excavation to the approved depth.
  4. dressing the loose soil.
  5. marking up the cut off level.
  6. the construction of dewatering wells and interconnecting trenches.
  7. marking the boundaries of the building.
  8. the construction of protection drains.

How do you calculate excavation?

So, the formula is: Ab = Wb * Lb, where Wb and Lb are the width and length of the bottom of the excavation. At = Wt * Lt, where Wt and Lt are the width and length of the top of the excavation. In our example, Wb = Lb = 5 and Wt = Lt = 15, so Ab = 5 * 5 = 25 and At = 15 * 15 = 225, and D = 5.

What is cut and fill excavation?

Cut and fill excavation is also known as excavation and embankment. It’s a process where excavators move and place volumes of material to create optimal terrain for a road, railway or canal.

Is drilling a type of excavation?

This process refers to removing soil from beneath the surface, with the purpose of building foundations or embankments. This type of excavation requires special methods (drilling or blasting with explosives).

What are some dangers of excavations OSHA?

The hazards include:

  • Cave-ins or collapses that can trap workers.
  • Equipment or excavated soil falling on workers (e.g., equipment operated or soil/debris stored too close to the excavation).
  • Falling into the trench or excavation.
  • Flooding or water accumulation.

What is the difference between earthwork and excavation?

 This earth work may be either earth excavation or earth filling or Some times both will get according to the desired shape and level. …  Basically the volume of earthwork is computed from length, breadth, and depth of excavation or filling.

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What is the difference between horizontal and vertical excavation?

The horizontal dimension reveals a site as it was at a fixed point in time. The vertical dimension shows the sequence of changes within a site over time. Excavation methods vary according to which dimension of the past an archaeologist chooses to study.

What is the importance of excavation?

Excavations can be classified, from the point of view of their purpose, as planned, rescue, or accidental. Most important excavations are the result of a prepared plan—that is to say, their purpose is to locate buried evidence about an archaeological site.

What is excavation in safety?

Excavation work involves the removal of. soil or a mixture of soil and rock, and even. some of the most experienced workers. have been trapped, buried and injured in.

What are the materials used for excavation?

Various Types of Excavation Equipment Use on Construction Site

  • Tractors: It is an important equipment for earth movement. …
  • Power Shovels: It is used to excavate earth of all classes except rock and load it into wagons. …
  • Bull Dozers: …
  • Angle Dozers: …
  • Scrapers: …
  • Draglines: …
  • Clamshell: …
  • Backhoe:


Special equipment and operation