OSHA defines an excavation as any man-made cut, cavity, trench, or depression in the Earth’s surface formed by earth removal. … Other potential hazards associated with trenching work include falling loads, hazardous atmospheres, and hazards from mobile equipment.
What is the excavation work?
Excavation is the process of moving earth, rock or other materials with tools, equipment or explosives. It also includes trenching, wall shafts, tunnelling and underground. It is the preliminary activity of the construction project.
How do you excavate safely?
How is Excavation Done Safely?
- Inspect trenches daily before work begins. …
- Check weather conditions before work, be mindful of rain and storms.
- Keep heavy equipment away from trench edges.
- Be mindful of the location of utilities underground.
- Always wear proper protective equipment.
- Don’t work beneath raised loads.
What is excavation and its types?
A common method of classifying excavation is by type of excavated material: topsoil, earth, rock, muck, and unclassified. Topsoil excavation is removal of the exposed layer of the earth’s surface, including vegetation. … Rock excavation is removal of a formation that cannot be excavated without drilling and blasting.
What are dangers of excavations?
Trenching and excavation hazards are one of the most hazardous construction operations and injuries and fatalities have been on the rise in recent years. The primary hazard of trenching and excavation is employee injury or death from collapse or cave-in.
What are the three methods of excavation?
Types of excavation
- 3.1 Cut and fill excavation.
- 3.2 Trench excavation.
- 3.3 Basement excavation.
- 3.4 Road excavation.
- 3.5 Bridge excavation.
- 3.6 Dredging.
- 3.7 Over excavation.
How do you calculate excavation?
So, the formula is: Ab = Wb * Lb, where Wb and Lb are the width and length of the bottom of the excavation. At = Wt * Lt, where Wt and Lt are the width and length of the top of the excavation. In our example, Wb = Lb = 5 and Wt = Lt = 15, so Ab = 5 * 5 = 25 and At = 15 * 15 = 225, and D = 5.
How deep can you Excavation without shoring?
Trenches 5 feet (1.5 meters) deep or greater require a protective system unless the excavation is made entirely in stable rock. If less than 5 feet deep, a competent person may determine that a protective system is not required.
How can excavation hazards be prevented?
Provide protection by: Set spoils and equipment at least 2 feet back from the excavation. Use retaining devices, such as a trench box that will extend above the top of the trench to prevent equipment and spoils from falling back into the excavation.
What are the types of excavation?
Cut and Fill Excavation
Also known as stripping excavation, this type of excavation in construction is used to clear large areas. The process involves the removal of wide and shallow layers of topsoil, rocks, sand, and other unwanted materials. The procedure may also include grading the land.
What is Type D excavation?
02 Type D – Common – Common material is all other excavation materials of a nature not included in the foregoing description of Type A, regardless of the nature or condition of the material, or the method used to excavate or remove.
What is common excavation?
Common excavation is the excavation of soil materials from within the contract limits; however, this excavation is not limited to soil materials and may include existing HMA pavement. … Section 203 further defines embankment construction as the excavation, hauling, and disposal or compaction of all material.
What is the greatest danger associated with excavations?
Explanation: Cave-ins pose the greatest risk and are much more likely than other excavationrelated accidents to result in worker fatalities. Other potential hazards include falls, falling loads, hazardous atmospheres, and incidents involving mobile equipment.
Why was trenching so dangerous?
Trenches literally are filled with a variety of potential safety and environmental hazards. Cave-ins perhaps are the most feared trenching hazard as one cubic yard of soil can weigh as much as a car. Asphyxiation due to lack of oxygen in a confined space is a major risk. So are inhalation of toxic fumes and drowning.
What is the greatest risk with excavations?
Identify hazards of the excavations
The greatest risk from excavations is cave-ins.