What is surface excavation?

Excavation means any man-made cut, cavity, trench, or depression in an earth surface formed by earth removal. … A ramp may be constructed from earth or from structural materials such as steel or wood.

What excavated surface?

Excavated Surface means, the surface to which excavation is to be carried out under a particular items. In relation to filling work, the excavated surface shall mean the ground level from which filling will commence (after topsoil removal and clearing and grubbing).

What are the 3 types of excavation?

Types of Excavation

  • Earth excavation is removal of the layer of soil immediately under the topsoil and on top of rock. …
  • Muck excavation is removal of material that contains an excessive amount of water and undesirable soil. …
  • Unclassified excavation is removal of any combination of topsoil, earth, rock, and muck.

What is the types of excavation?

Types of excavation

  • 3.1 Cut and fill excavation.
  • 3.2 Trench excavation.
  • 3.3 Basement excavation.
  • 3.4 Road excavation.
  • 3.5 Bridge excavation.
  • 3.6 Dredging.
  • 3.7 Over excavation.


What does excavation mean in construction?

Excavation is the process of moving things like earth, rock, or other materials with tools, equipment, or explosives. It includes earthwork, trenching, wall shafts, tunneling, and underground. … In construction, excavation is used to create building foundations, reservoirs, and roads.

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What is the difference between earthwork and excavation?

 This earth work may be either earth excavation or earth filling or Some times both will get according to the desired shape and level. …  Basically the volume of earthwork is computed from length, breadth, and depth of excavation or filling.

How is excavation carried out?

Setting out or ground tracing is the process of laying down the excavation lines and centre lines etc. on the ground before the excavation is started. … Excavation is done by manual or machine means depending on the availability. The excavated soil is to either removed out the site or stocked around the excavation pit.

What is common excavation?

Common excavation is the excavation of soil materials from within the contract limits; however, this excavation is not limited to soil materials and may include existing HMA pavement. … Section 203 further defines embankment construction as the excavation, hauling, and disposal or compaction of all material.

How many methods of excavation are there?

Techniques used to find a site may include remote sensing (for example, by aerial photography), soil surveys, and walk-through or surface surveys. The digging of shovel tests, augured core samples and, less commonly, trenches may also be used to locate archaeological sites.

What is an excavation plan?

An Excavation and Trenching Plan should include the following elements: A hazard assessment. Identification and credentials of competent person. Diagram or sketch of the area where the work is to be done, with adjacent and nearby structures shown. Projected depth of the excavation.

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What are the materials used for excavation?

Various Types of Excavation Equipment Use on Construction Site

  • Tractors: It is an important equipment for earth movement. …
  • Power Shovels: It is used to excavate earth of all classes except rock and load it into wagons. …
  • Bull Dozers: …
  • Angle Dozers: …
  • Scrapers: …
  • Draglines: …
  • Clamshell: …
  • Backhoe:


What is the difference between horizontal and vertical excavation?

The horizontal dimension reveals a site as it was at a fixed point in time. The vertical dimension shows the sequence of changes within a site over time. Excavation methods vary according to which dimension of the past an archaeologist chooses to study.

What is cut and fill excavation?

Cut and fill excavation is also known as excavation and embankment. It’s a process where excavators move and place volumes of material to create optimal terrain for a road, railway or canal.

What’s the meaning of excavation?

1 : the action or process of excavating. 2 : a cavity formed by cutting, digging, or scooping. Other Words from excavation Example Sentences Learn More About excavation.

Special equipment and operation