What are the safety measures for excavation?
Excavations shall have at least one ladder per 15 m of length in case of hazardous work and per 30 m of length in case of less hazardous works. Every part of a trench, in public areas, fences, guards or barricades shall be provided to prevent any accidents. Excavation areas shall be adequately lighted for night work.
What are two safety concerns regarding excavation work?
More excavation-related hazards
- falls into trenches or excavations.
- tripping over equipment, debris and spoil.
- excavated material or other objects falling on workers.
- exposure to underground services or overhead electrical cables.
- unstable adjacent structures.
- mishandled or poorly placed materials.
What are 2 measures that could be used to prevent ground collapse when excavating?
Isolation—for example use concrete barriers to separate pedestrians and powered mobile plant to reduce the risk of collision. Engineering controls—for example benching, battering or shoring the sides of the excavation to reduce the risk of the ground collapsing.
What are the three methods of excavation?
Types of excavation
- 3.1 Cut and fill excavation.
- 3.2 Trench excavation.
- 3.3 Basement excavation.
- 3.4 Road excavation.
- 3.5 Bridge excavation.
- 3.6 Dredging.
- 3.7 Over excavation.
What are some dangers of excavation?
Top 5 excavation safety hazards
- Cave-ins. Trench collapses kill an average of two workers every month, making this a serious threat to worker safety. …
- Falls and falling loads. Workers and work equipment can fall into an excavated area. …
- Hazardous atmospheres. …
- Mobile equipment. …
- Hitting utility lines.
What are the important precautions for confined space?
An important step in determining the hazards in a confined space is air testing.
Air quality testing
- The oxygen content is within safe limits – not too little and not too much.
- A hazardous atmosphere (toxic gases, flammable atmosphere) is not present.
- Ventilation equipment is operating properly.
What is scaffolding in safety?
A scaffold is a temporary structure erected to support access or working platforms. Scaffolds are commonly used in construction work so workers have a safe, stable work platform when work cannot be done at ground level or on a finished floor. … Scaffolding is classified as plant under Work Health and Safety (WHS) Act.
What are 3 main protection methods against cave-ins?
To prevent cave-ins: SLOPE or bench trench walls. SHORE trench walls with supports, or. SHIELD trench walls with trench boxes.
How many types of excavation are there?
According to Type of Material Excavated
A common method of classifying excavation is by type of excavated material: topsoil, earth, rock, muck, and unclassified.
What is the basic type of shoring?
Shoring systems consist of posts, wales, struts, and sheeting. There are two basic types of shoring, timber and aluminum hydraulic.
What is a safe work method statement?
What is a SWMS? A SWMS is a document that sets out the high risk construction work activities to be carried out at a workplace, the hazards arising from these activities and the measures to be put in place to control the risks.
What are the techniques of excavation?
Techniques used to find a site may include remote sensing (for example, by aerial photography), soil surveys, and walk-through or surface surveys. The digging of shovel tests, augured core samples and, less commonly, trenches may also be used to locate archaeological sites.
What are the steps of excavation?
The excavation process includes:
- setting corner benchmarks.
- surveying ground and top levels.
- excavation to the approved depth.
- dressing the loose soil.
- marking up the cut off level.
- the construction of dewatering wells and interconnecting trenches.
- marking the boundaries of the building.
- the construction of protection drains.
How do you calculate excavation?
So, the formula is: Ab = Wb * Lb, where Wb and Lb are the width and length of the bottom of the excavation. At = Wt * Lt, where Wt and Lt are the width and length of the top of the excavation. In our example, Wb = Lb = 5 and Wt = Lt = 15, so Ab = 5 * 5 = 25 and At = 15 * 15 = 225, and D = 5.