When should an excavation be battered back or stepped?
The 1.2m rule for trenches used to be in older health and safety regulations and is often still quoted today. The basis of the rule is that, if a trench is under 1.2m deep, then people can enter the trench without the sides of the excavation being supported or battered back.
When should excavations be inspected?
Inspection. A competent person who fully understands the dangers and necessary precautions should inspect the excavation at the start of each shift. Excavations should also be inspected after any event that may have affected their strength or stability, or after a fall of rock or earth.
What are the safety measures for excavation?
Excavations shall have at least one ladder per 15 m of length in case of hazardous work and per 30 m of length in case of less hazardous works. Every part of a trench, in public areas, fences, guards or barricades shall be provided to prevent any accidents. Excavation areas shall be adequately lighted for night work.
At what depth must excavations be protected?
Trenches 5 feet (1.5 meters) deep or greater require a protective system unless the excavation is made entirely in stable rock. If less than 5 feet deep, a competent person may determine that a protective system is not required.
What is the safest way to get out of a deep excavation?
Support the excavation as you go along. Prevent people and materials falling in – with barriers strong enough not to collapse if someone falls against them. Keep plant and materials away from the edge. Avoid underground services – use relevant service drawings, service locating devices and safe digging practice.
What are the three methods of excavation?
Types of excavation
- 3.1 Cut and fill excavation.
- 3.2 Trench excavation.
- 3.3 Basement excavation.
- 3.4 Road excavation.
- 3.5 Bridge excavation.
- 3.6 Dredging.
- 3.7 Over excavation.
What needs to be done before you start to excavate?
The first and primary step involved in the excavation is to find out the extent of soil and Clearing of construction site is of unwanted bushes, weeds and plants. Setting out or ground tracing is the process of laying down the excavation lines and centre lines etc. on the ground before the excavation is started.
At what depth do you need a trench box?
When trenches reach a depth of 5 feet or more, OSHA requires contractors to use a protective system. Protective systems are also required for trenches less than 5 feet deep if the soil might have the propensity to cave in when the trench is dug (such as with sand or mud).
Which one of the following is most likely to cause an excavation to collapse?
Excavated spoil, plant or materials should not be stored close to the sides of excavations as loose material can fall in. The extra loading can make the sides of the excavation more likely to collapse. Prevent people from falling into excavations by substantial barriers around the edges.
What are some dangers of excavation?
Top 5 excavation safety hazards
- Cave-ins. Trench collapses kill an average of two workers every month, making this a serious threat to worker safety. …
- Falls and falling loads. Workers and work equipment can fall into an excavated area. …
- Hazardous atmospheres. …
- Mobile equipment. …
- Hitting utility lines.
What are two safety concerns regarding excavation work?
More excavation-related hazards
- falls into trenches or excavations.
- tripping over equipment, debris and spoil.
- excavated material or other objects falling on workers.
- exposure to underground services or overhead electrical cables.
- unstable adjacent structures.
- mishandled or poorly placed materials.
How many types of excavation are there?
According to Type of Material Excavated
A common method of classifying excavation is by type of excavated material: topsoil, earth, rock, muck, and unclassified.
What type of soil Cannot be benched?
Type C soil cannot be benched.
What is the average depth of an excavation cave in?
Furthermore, what is the average depth of an excavation cave in? Some parts of a trench are more than 5 feet deep, while other parts are less than 5 feet deep. The average of those measurements is less than 5 feet.
What depth is considered confined space?
In the United States, any pit or trench with a depth equal to or greater than 4 feet is classified as a permit-required confined space. A permit-required confined space has to have one or more specific characteristics, the first being that it contains hazardous gases or has the potential to be a hazardous space.